The Fermi Paradox: An Approach Based on Percolation Theory
Any given colony will have a probability P of developing a colonizing civilization, and a probability (1-P) that it will develop a non-colonizing civilization. These assumptions lead to the colonization of the galaxy occuring as a percolation problem. In a percolation problem, there will be a critical value of the percolation probability, Pc. For P<Pc, colonization will always terminate after a finite number of colonies. Growth will occur in "clusters," with the outside of each cluster consisting of non-colonizing civilizations. For P>Pc, small uncolonized voids will exist, bounded by non-colonizing civilizations. When P is on the order of Pc, arbitrarily large filled regions exist, and also arbitrarily large empty regions.The Mating Mind: how Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature
Many researchers have suggested that human mental evolution was so fast and unusual that it must have been driven by some sort of positive-feedback process. Other candidates for the positive-feedback process have included gene-culture co-evolution, inter-tribal warfare, and social selection for Machiavellian intelligence. Sexual selection has been strangely neglected, though it is the best-established, most powerful form of positive-feedback evolution known to biologists.
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